A (2) | B (8) | C (4) | D (3) | F (6) | G (1) | H (5) | L (2) | M (4) | O (3) | P (6) | Q (1) | R (7) | S (8) | T (2) | W (1) | Z (1) | ALL (64)


Short for "cultivated variety", the term refers to a variety which originated in cultivation rather than the wild.

Cut roses

Cut flowers in early morning or after it rains, not when they are under water stress. Cut the stem about an inch longer than you need. After cutting, immediately place cut flower in warm water. If possible, with the stem under water, cut off the bottom inch or so of the stem at an angle. This keeps air from getting into the stem. Remove all foliage that remains under water and would just rot. Re-cut the stem underwater every day if possible. Some people add a small amount of bleach to the water to keep down fungus and bacteria. Sugar or soda can be used for food. Others use a commercial floral preservative.


(see also hips) Deadheading is cutting off flowers as they wither or don't look as good. Old blooms left on the plant may have been pollinated and may begin to form seed pods (hips). The formation of hips requires a lot of energy from the plant and slows flower production. By preventing the formation of hips, deadheading encourages the rose bush to grow new flowers. An alternative to cutting is to snap off the flower at the abscission layer on the stem (where it wants to break).
Deadheading through the season may be as much pruning as some old-fashioned roses need for several years in a row, eg Teas, when combined with a light "Hygiene Prune" in winter. (This means removing dead wood and crossing-over branches).


Two meanings:
- Removing flower buds from a very young or stressed plant, so it can put its energy into growing roots and leaves.
- Removing the side buds on a stem to send energy to the development of the flower growing at the tip of the stem. Primarily done in order to develop larger, high quality blooms used for exhibition purposes.


Flower with twenty-four or more petals. (All roses have at least four petals). Some rose experts class roses with more than fifty petals as "very double".


Hybrid Teas, especially if intended for cut flowers or for the show bench, will perform much better if given adequate fertilizer. Use a well balanced fertilizer, such as 10-10-10, N-P-K. The three numbers used to describe a fertilizer tell how much of the three major nutrients are in that fertilizer. The first number (N) is the Nitrogen content, the second (P) is Phosphorous, and the third (K) is Potassium. Nitrogen or Nitrogen-Phosphorous-Potassium, (leaves, flowers, roots). Fertilize less during the first year while the plant is getting established. However, note that most Australian native plants evolved in phosphorous-poor soils, and will not tolerate the fertilisers described above; for beds with both natives and roses, it is safer to use a seaweed product such as Seamungous.
Seasol is useful to water in newly-planted roses (also fruit trees and natives), as it encourages root growth.
Heritage roses are in general survivors, and when established need less fertiliser and less water than modern roses.

When planting roses, it is recommended that you add long-term sources of Phosphorous and Potassium to the soil near the roots because these two elements move slowly through the soil. Bone meal and rock phosphate are good long-term sources of Phosphorous. Granite sand is a long-term source of Potassium.

Cottonseed meal (lowers soil pH.), alfalfa meal, and blood meal are organic sources of Nitrogen. Alfalfa meal also releases a growth stimulator as it decomposes. Many forms of inorganic Nitrogen leach quickly from the soil. Nitrogen also helps stimulate basal breaks.

Some rose growers fertilize with Epsom salts. Epsom salts are magnesium sulfate, a source of Magnesium. Being a sulfate, it will lower soil pH. Although the need to use of Epsom salts is frequently debated, Magnesium (along with Nitrogen) is supposed to stimulate basal breaks. Many gardeners use 1/4 cup of Epsom salts per plant in the Spring and/or Fall. Some use as little as 1 tablespoon per plant, others up to 1/2 cup.

Seaweed is a good organic source of trace elements.


(abbrev. FB or FL) Floribundas were created about 1909 by crossing the Polyanthas with Hybrid Teas. They produce flowers in clusters, not singly like the Hybrid Teas. Floribundas are usually shorter plants than Hybrid Teas and tend to produce more flowers and smaller flowers than Hybrid Teas on shorter stems. Although Hybrid Teas provide excellent cut flowers, Floribundas are well suited as good landscape plants providing lots of color. Many Floribundas are not very fragrant.


Translates to Free-flowering

Fossil Roses

Fossilized roses estimated to be at 7 to 25 million years old have been discovered in Asia, Europe, and North America.


Fragrance contributes much to the enjoyment of roses. It is also one of the most subjective of topics when discussing roses. Fragrance or perceived fragrance depends upon many factors: variety of rose, time of day, weather, growing conditions, the person smelling the rose, living flower vs. cut flower, etc. Each person's sense of smell is different. A rose that is very fragrant to someone, may be not at all fragrant to someone else. Roses are most fragrant around mid-morning on a warm day with no wind and moderate or high humidity. Their can dozens of components in the fragrance of a rose, but rose scents are usually categorized with such descriptions as "spicey", "tea", "old rose", or "fruity".


Blackspot, powdery mildew and rust are the three most common fungus problems that roses have. See blackspot for some ways of preventing and treating fungus problems. Planting disease-resistant roses in a sunny location with good air circulation will help prevent fungi.


Sub-class of plants which have common characteristics. The genus name for roses is "Rosa".


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