A (2) | B (8) | C (4) | D (3) | F (6) | G (1) | H (5) | L (2) | M (4) | O (3) | P (6) | Q (1) | R (7) | S (8) | T (2) | W (1) | Z (1) | ALL (64)

Heeling In

Temporary planting of roses when conditions (temperature/soil condition/no time to plant!) prevent permanent planting.


Having the center petals the longest. Attribute associated with the classic ideal of Hybrid Tea form.


(see also deadheading)

These are the rose seed pods that form after a flower's petals fall if the bloom was pollinated. Hips are the fruit produced by rose plants. Apple trees are members of the rosacae family and the apple is a hip. Some varieties such as R.rugosa produce large hips that turn brilliant colors in autumn.

Allowing the hips to develop will cause a rose to slow down or stop producing flowers. It also helps induce dormancy, helping prepare the rose plant for winter in colder climates. In contrast, deadheading will keep the plant from producing hips and encourage it to produce more flowers.


Bred from two parents. Most roses are indeed hybrid roses, whether Bourbon or Floribunda or Hybrid Tea. Hybrids, while not always bred by humans (hybrids can result from natural cross-pollination in the wild), are selected for characteristics such as flower form, disease resistance, fragrance, and repeat flowering (remontance).

Hybrid Teas

(abbrev. HT)

Hybrid Teas are easily the most popular class of roses today. Hybrid Teas as a group have large flowers with a high-pointed bud. They are excellent repeat bloomers, often blooming almost continually. They bloom one flower per stem on long sturdy stems making them excellent for cutting. Hybrid Teas come in a large variety of colors.
HYbrid teas before 1920 are considered heritage roses; many are healthier than later ones, some of which have been weakened by excessive in-breeding.

The rose "La France", bred in 1867, is classified as the first Hybrid Tea rose.

La Malmaison

The gardens (and home) of Empress Josephine (wife of Napoleon I) and in its heyday the home of over 250 species of roses. Although the gardens are in ruins today, La Malmaison re-introduced the rose as an ornamental plant. Empress Josephine may be considered the first true rosarian of Europe.

Lateral Cane

Secondary branches originating from the basal cane. Shrubs with strong lateral cane growth tend to be bushy, whereas shrubs that do not create many lateral canes tend to have an arching form.


See Powdery Mildew

Miniature Roses

Miniature roses grow to only about 6-18. The plants, leaves are all miniatures of the larger roses. Miniature roses tend to be quite hardy and can be grown in containers.

Modern Roses

Refers to roses introduced since 1867 when the first Hybrid Tea was created. Usually refers to Hybrid Tea, Floribunda, or Grandiflora roses.


Roses benefit from a 7 - 10cm deep organic mulch such as pine bark, pine needles, leaf mulch, etc. Keep the mulch a few inches away from the stem of the plant.

Benefits of proper mulching:

  1. Reduced watering requirements and less water stress due to
    • milder soil temperatures and
    • reduced evaporation.
  2. Less disease from water splashing on the lower leaves of plant.
  3. Fewer weeds because the mulch blocks some of the sunlight to weed seedlings.
  4. Better soil as the mulch breaks down and adds organic matter to the top layer of soil.
  5. Good soil structure because mulch will help stop soil compaction.

Old Roses

(abbrev. OR, OGR, see also English Roses, Modern Roses) Sometimes called Old Roses, Old-fashioned Roses or Antique Roses, these are the varieties of roses that existed before 1867 when the first Hybrid Tea was introduced.

Some of the classes of Old Roses are the Albas, Bourbons, Boursaults, Centifolias, Chinas, Damasks, Gallicas, Hybrid Perpetuals, Mosses, Noisettes, Portlands, and Tea roses. Some of the Ramblers and Rugosas are considered Old Roses. As a group, Old Roses tend to be once blooming, though some are repeat bloomers. They tend to be more disease-resistant and require less maintenance than the Hybrid Teas which accounts for some of their popularity. There are exceptions to this, especially the China and Tea roses. The China and Tea roses are tender and disease prone, but are very important because they provide the repeat blooming genes to many classes of roses (notably Hybrid Teas).

This FAQ contains a document with more information about Old Roses.


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