A (2) | B (8) | C (4) | D (3) | F (6) | G (1) | H (5) | L (2) | M (4) | O (3) | P (6) | Q (1) | R (7) | S (8) | T (2) | W (1) | Z (1) | ALL (64)

Once Blooming

(see also repeat blooming:)

Roses that bloom once a year, usually in the spring. Since, they bloom only once a year, when they do bloom they usually put on an excellent show. They flower on old wood, so most pruning is done just after they have finished blooming, not in the winter.
This applies to most species roses, most Ramblers and to Old European roses (Gallicas, Damasks, Albas, Centifolias and many Moss roses).
Organic Fertilizer|Fertilizer made from natural substances rather than chemicals. Examples of organic materials include compost (excellent!), alfalfa, blood meal, fish emulsion, manure, bone meal, and kelp.

Own-Root Roses

An own-root rose is a plant whose rootstock (the roots) is the same variety as the top of the plant.

Grafted roses, commonly referred to as budded plants, are plants where the desired rose is grafted or budded onto a rootstock of a different type. The point where the desired variety and the rootstock meet is called the bud union.
We prefer to grow non-suckering roses on their own roots, as although they are slower to establish than budded ones, they are more resilient to drought, mowers, whippersnippers and bushfires. This applies to Teas, Chinas, Polyanthas, most Ramblers. Some Hybrid Teas and Floribundas will do well on their own roots, but less robust ones need the support of an understock.

Own-root roses are usually recommended for those in very cold climates. This is because an own-root rose that dies back to the ground during the winter can grow back the next year from the roots. If a grafted rose dies back to the ground, what will come up next Spring is the rootstock variety, usually an undesirable variety of rose.

Even if a rose doesn't die back to the ground. Sometimes a shoot will emerge from the rootstock. If the rose is grafted, this shoot is called a sucker, and will be the same variety of the rootstock, not the desired plant. When this happens with own-root roses, the shoot will be of the desired variety.

New canes can emerge each year from the bud union of grafted roses. After many years, the bud union of grafted roses can become large and knobby and eventually run out of places for new canes to emerge from. This is not a problem for own-root roses, since they lack the knobby bud union of grafted roses. Therefore, grafted roses may not last as long as own-root roses.

Most roses are sold as grafted plants, since it is more economical than selling own-root plants. A common rootstock is "Dr. Huey", used by J&P and Roses of Yesterday and Today and other nurseries in the western US. It does well in alkaline soils. "Dr. Huey" has a dark red bloom about 2 1/2 inches in diameter. R. multiflora is commonly is in the eastern US. It prefers acid soil. Wayside uses "Manetti" rootstock.

There has recently been some discussion about R. fortuniana rootstock. It is primarily used in Florida where its root knot nematode resistance is important. Its fine, spreading root network is good for sandy soils. It is not considered to be freeze hardy, so it is only recommended for mild climates.

Don't confuse own-root roses with bare-root roses, the terms refer to different things. Roses are usually sold either bare-root (no soil around the roots) or potted in containers. Bare-root roses can be either own-root or grafted. Bare-root roses tend to be less expensive than potted roses. Since they are lighter (no soil) than potted roses, most mail-order roses are bare-root.

Patented Roses

A rose variety may be patented just like any other plant. A patent grants to the holder exclusive rights to distribute and propagate that variety of rose. Of course the patent holder can license others to distribute and propagate that rose. A patent lasts for 17 years, so most older roses aren't currently under patent. After the patent has expired, anyone can distribute and propagate that particular variety.

Some nurseries divide their roses into patented roses and non-patented roses, with the patented roses costing more. This is because they may freely propagate the non-patented varieties, but their is usually a fee for propagating patented varieties.

It is illegal to asexually reproduce a patented plant, even for personal use. It is, however, legal to use a patented rose in hybridizing.


There are two roses available in Australia. The Hybrid Tea Peace is the most popular rose in the world. It was smuggled out of France just before the Nazi occupation and introduced just after the end of the World War II. It produces large blooms of yellow blending to pink on the edges. It is not very fragrant. The Tea rose , named for the end of the Boer War in 1902, is semi-double, in similar colours to the HT, and is a sport of G Nabonnand.

Pillar Rose

Indicates a form, not a class of roses. Roses grown as pillars have flexible canes of five to twelve feet which may be trained around an upright support (it does not have to be an actual pillar). Roses suitable for use as pillars are moderate in growth so that they will not overwhelm their support.


Female organ of a flower. The pistil includes the stigma, style, and ovary.


It is best to prepare the ground about 6 weeks before planting, with compost or cow manure dug through the whole rose bed. It is preferable not to use Roundup on the bed in this time.

Powdery Mildew

A fungus disease, powdery mildew strikes under cool, humid conditions. Leaves will become covered with a whitish residue and may be curled and distorted. Powdery Mildew is not normally a serious affliction in that plants do not normally succumb to the disease. However, it is certainly unattractive. A spray of powdered milk diluted 1 in 10 can be used to reduce it. Good airflow through a rose garden helps.


A flower in which the center petals are folded into four quarters.

Recessive Gene

Genes are either dominant or recessive. A dominant gene's characteristics will predominate when paired with a recessive gene. For a recessive gene to show, it must be paired with another recessive gene. For example, in humans, blue eyes are recessive and brown eyes are dominant; thus, a person who has blue eyes must have received the recessive blue eye gene from each parent. Of interest perhaps, two blue-eyed parents can have only a blue eyed child; two brown- eyed parents can have either a blue or brown-eyed child.


Pierre Joseph, Court appointed painter to Marie Antoinette and Empress Josephine, Redout's credo was, "one does best what one loves most, however humble the pursuit." He is best remembered for his paintings of plants, especially roses and lilies. His paintings from Empress Josephine's garden at La Malmaison provide modern gardeners with an invaluable visual documentary of the roses grown two hundred years ago.


Flowering more than once in a season. Species roses tend to bloom once a season. Roses which are remontant may bloom continuously or in regular waves (for example, floribundas or hybrid teas or some older classes), whereas others may have a two waves, one in spring and one in autumn. The term is mainly used for roses which repeat-flower but less often than many Hybrid Teas.


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